Lack of nourishment may retard fetal growth, it may also lead to an increase in the production of cortisol, a hormone produced in response to stress, which in prolonged concentrations may affect brain cell differentiation (3). Effects in the first three months of pregnancy may be harmful to the development of the brain, including memory centres and areas of emotional responsiveness, such as the hippocampus
Attachment is defined as the lifelong need human beings have for affectionate ties with significant other human beings. It is a biological necessity for Human Beings to have a secure attachment relationship. The development of the brain and emotional regulation capacities depends on this attachment from late pregnancy to at least 2 years of age. Infants who have been responded to sensitively and held frequently and affectionately during the early months, cry less towards the end of the first year and are able to play happily and explore their environment.